When it comes to sneaker technology, shoes are divided into three major areas: the upper, the midsole, and the outsole. Depending on the materials and combinations used, one model of sneaker can vary greatly from another.
Uppers, the top part of the shoe with the laces, fancy designs and bright colors that holds the shoe together, usually come in one of three materials, leather, synthetic leather, and mesh.
Special editions, retro and vintage models, Converse and casual shoes like the Nike Vandal, the Air Force 1, and the Nike After Party for women may have a canvas upper.
Midsoles are used to cushion and provide support and protection for the foot. There are four types of materials used in commercially produced sneakers. Midsoles are often constructed of a combination of materials. Midsole materials are Phylon, polyurethane, Phylite, and EVA.
Phylon is very lightweight, low-profile and responsive. Phylon is made of EVA foam pellets that are compressed, heat expanded and then cooled in a mold. Compression-molded Phylon Midsoles can be sculpted into a variety of designs that are identified by their fine wrinkles.
PU or Polyurethane
PU is the most dense, durable and stable midsole material. PU is poured into a mold to create a firm midsole that provides maximum protection from impact. PU is identified by its smooth rubbery feel and tendency to turn yellow with age. PU is the heaviest midsole material, but it is also the most durable.
Phylite is an injection-molded unit made of a combination of 60% Phylon and 40% rubber. Phylite is lighter than rubber, but heavier than Phylon and functions as both midsole and outsole. By eliminating a separate midsole and outsole the weight of the shoe is greatly reduced and flexibility is increased.
EVA is soft, light and flexible. It is the least expensive midsole material and is often used in entry-level shoes. Midsoles are cut and shaped from flat sheets of EVA foam. EVA will compress and become flat over time as the air trapped within the foam is squeezed out. Once EVA is compacted, it does not return to its original shape and no longer provides cushioning. EVA compresses faster than other midsole materials.
ClimaCool is the adidas technology designed to keep feet cooler and drier. It combines maximum functionality through a unique 360° ventilation system with progressive and stylish design.
Each part of the shoe breathes, combining moisture management and maximum ventilation. The result is a shoe that helps the foot maintain its optimal temperature. With a new and highly visible technology, ClimaCool is adidas keystone.
AdiPrene ® Technology
Protection for your heel. Exclusive to adidas, adiPRENE® is an elastic material which responds to the cushioning needs of your moving foot.
adiPRENE® absorbs impact forces, providing superior cushioning and protection.
An adiPRENE® insert also provides both long-term cushioning and comfort.
Torsion System ® Technology
High-performance athletic footwear must protect and support the foot while still allowing it to function in a natural manner.
Adidas TORSION® SYSTEM stabilizes the foot, providing lightweight arch support while allowing the forefoot and rearfoot to move freely.
The PowerPulse concept offers footballers a significant increase in ball speed compared to conventional boots when shooting or passing. Materials are concentrated toward the front of the boot to generate maximum momentum and power from the forward swing of the foot as it contacts the ball.
Pro-moderator is an extremely lightweight midsole support system. The material used is a thermoplastic
urethane (TPU) with a thickness of 1.55mm which significantly reduces the overall shoe weight compared
to a 10-15mm second density.
AdiTuff is an abrasion-resistant material that provides exceptional durability in the toe and prevents
abrasion. This unique material prolongs the life of the shoe through its ability withstand wear for a longer time period. AdiTuff compounds offer better abrasion resistance than any other comparative material.
The Traxion ® outsole design was originally developed for football, for which its tapered shape provides
excellent ground penetration without the typical stud pressure that football boots place on the foot.
The wide, narrow profile of Traxion lugs grips without slippage, making it ideal for use in any outdoor
sport requiring maximum outsole grip.
Adiwear ® Technology
An extremely durable non-marking rubber used primarily for tennis shoe outsoles and for other high-
abrasion applications which offers the optimal balance of excellent abrasion resistance, traction and flexibility.
In linear sports (such as running or golf), adiWear is used to reduce wear in the heel landing area and
the toe-off area. In court sports such as tennis, it offers durability while still allowing pivoting and sliding.
Formotion ® Technology
Formotion its a three dimensional engineering advance that creates shaped garments that follow the curves of the body and mimics the motions of sport for better fit, greater comfort and amplified freedom of
Z-Traxion is specifically engineered to deliver superior traction and stability for your golf swing.
It combines lateral lugs for grip when swinging, and linear lugs for comfort and grip while walking.
Z-shaped lugs are positioned in the pattern of the shoe resulting in 168 points of contact between the sole and the turf.
a³ ®Energy Management System (a3 Technology)
The a³® Energy Management System is a comprehensive midsole cushioning and control system.
From initial impact through toe-off, every phase of the foot strike is addressed through specific materials,
geometry and levels of firmness.
ClimaLite ® Technology
ClimaLite® fabric pull sweat away from the skin to the outer fabric face for quick evaporation,
enhancing the bodys natural temperature regulation.
Quickstrike outsole construction provides a light, durable outsole. The synthetic used for Quickstrike
lugs has higher abrasion resistance than traditional expanded rubber and out performs heavier carbon rubber. The material is molded directly onto a thin textile base, which functions the same as
traditional, heavier rubber base.
GeoFit® is an internal footwear technology that enhances fit and comfort by placing padding where you need it. Offering greater stability, more effective distribution of pressure, a higher level of protection and better heel fit and functional location.